Bulk precipitation includes liquid, solid and gaseous parts.


The precipitation under the tree crowns (throughfall) is chemically very different from bulk precipitation water. The chemical difference of throughfall solution with bulk precipitation solution is a result of contact of solution with above ground parts of vegetation.

Surface water

Surface water represents an important output of the masses from catchment. It includes dissolved forms of elements as well as solid suspended matter.


PSoil is an important storage of water, nutrients etc. It is derived from the underlying bedrock with important contribution of the living organisms.


Chemical composition of bedrock determines the chemical composition of soils.